By Stefan Hagel
This booklet endeavours to pinpoint the kinfolk among musical, and particularly instrumental, perform and the evolving conceptions of pitch structures. It strains the improvement of old melodic notation from reconstructed origins, via a variety of variations necessitated through altering musical types and newly invented tools, to its ultimate canonical shape. It therefore emerges how heavily old harmonic thought relied on the culturally dominant tools, the lyre and the aulos. those threads are right down to past due antiquity, whilst info recorded by means of Ptolemy allow an extremely transparent view. Dr Hagel discusses the textual and pictorial proof, introducing mathematical methods anyplace possible, but additionally contributes to the translation of tools within the archaeological list and sometimes is ready to define the overall beneficial properties of tools in some way attested. The ebook may be integral to all these drawn to Greek song, expertise and function tradition and the final historical past of musicology.
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Additional resources for Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History
Since the repertory of simple bracket-like shapes was exhausted, new paths had to be explored. The sign that was devised for the new hypátʶ, , is still very similar to the ﬁrst three signs, being open to the right and therefore easily recognisable in its position within the pyknón. But it is not symmetrical about the horizontal axis. The highest members of the original triplets can be seen as the result of a 180 degree rotation, or of a reversion about the vertical axis. Now a decision had to be made between these two interpretations; it fell in favour of the reversion: is more easily recognised as a variant of than is .
Winnington-Ingram 1958: 244–7). Diatonic music is attested in Old Babylonian cuneiform tablets, but probably goes back at least to Sumerian music; cf. g. Kilmer 1997; Kilmer 2001. , Harm. 19, p. 4. g. e–f–f –a36). Thus the basic relationship of the three genera can be drawn as follows: diatonic chromatic enharmonic But these relationships, stated in simple parts of a whole tone, served just for a ﬁrst orientation. In practice, musicians used a variety of ‘shades’. It is important for our topic that the varying sizes of pykná could make the distinction between the enharmonic and the chromatic appear somewhat arbitrary, as transpires from a passage from Aristoxenus:37 ʱȵȵʹ ȹ ȭȯ ȮȳȫȽȺȬȹȷȽȯȻ ąȯȺ Ƚ ,Ⱥȭȫȷȫ ȮȳȼȲ ȷȹȷȽȹ ȶ
ȷ ʼȴ ȼȽȹȾ ȽHȷ ȭȯȷHȷ, ȫ3Ƚ' ȶȷȽȹȳ Ƚ' ą&Ƚȯ ʵȺɀȯȽȫȳ ȸ ʲȺȶȹȷȫȻ ɀȺHȶ Ƚȳ ȭȭȷȯȼȲȫȳ, ȹ3ȮȯȻ ȹ3Ȯʹ ąȬȵȯɁȯ ą@ąȹȽʹ ȫ3ȽHȷ.
Also Comotti 1972). 78 Similarly we cannot know at which stage the ‘Dorian’ lowest tetrachord was added. We are told that the notes of the hýpaton tetrachord were not used in Dorian melodies by the ‘ancients’;79 but can we apply this piece of information to the notation also? In any case, the sign for ‘Dorian’ hypátʶ hypatôn + is clearly more cumbersome to write than all that we have encountered so far. If we arrange the note signs according to how quickly they are drawn, starting with the simplest and most ancient specimens, + is ordered even after , followed only by the even lower 0 (with ‘accidentals’ %/).