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By Carroll B.W., Ostlie D.A.

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When Jupiter is at opposition (closest approach to Earth), ÂJupiter D 2:3 10 4 rad D 4700, implying ÂJupiter =Âeye D 1:7. The resolution is worse during all other relative positions of Jupiter and Earth. 8 (c) It is possible for the disk of the Moon to be resolved with the naked eye. However, the disk of Jupiter is comparable to the eye’s resolution limit; to distinguish any features on the surface of Jupiter, they would need to be nearly the size of the planet’s disk. (a) From Eq. 6), Âmin D 3:4 10 6 rad D 0:6900 .

14), E1 D 13:6 eV, E2 D 3:40 eV, and E3 D 1:51 eV, and gn D 2n2 for hydrogen. 5, we find N3 =N2 D 5:14 10 2 and N3 =N1 D 2:82 10 10. That is, for every neutral hydrogen atom in the n D 3 state, there are 19 in the n D 2 state and 3:55 109 in the n D 1 state. The number of neutral hydrogen atoms per unit area is then N1 hNa i D 5:35 1029 m 2 : N3 The ratio of the number of ionized to neutral atoms is obtained from the Saha equation, Eq. 4). The result shows that NII =NI D 1:33 10 4, so nearly all of the hydrogen atoms are neutral.

7 From Eq. E3 E1 /= kT 5 : Thus ZI ' 2. 8 As n ! 1, the expression for the partition function, Eq. 7), actually diverges. However, in reality the large-n terms can be ignored because as n ! 1, the atomic orbitals overlap with those of neighboring atoms, and the electrons are no longer associated with a single nucleus. 9. NII =N t is shown for a box of hydrogen gas. 9 (a) Start by writing or NII NII NII =NI D D ; Nt NI C NII 1 C NII =NI Â Ã NII NII NII 1C D : Nt NI NI NII =NI is given by the Saha equation, Eq.

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