By Robert B. McComb
There could be doubtless that alkaline phosphatase is among the such a lot broadly in vestigated of all enzymes. This has resulted from the ubiquity of its distribution, and from the benefit and sensitivity with which its task should be measured. regrettably, those wide-ranging yet usually superficial experimental reports were up via extensive and systematic investigations in just a number of restricted parts of the biochemistry and chemical pathology of alkaline phosphatase. the end result has been the buildup of a systematic literature of intimidating proportions, and the inevitable rediscovery of already recognized evidence in regards to the enzyme. Scientists are taught early of their careers that, within the phrases of Sir John Herschel, "Hasty generalization is the bane of technology. " however, moments arrive in all spheres of medical job whilst generalization turns into crucial, to codify and to choose between the mass of information already amassed, and to supply beginning issues for brand new advancements and new strains of research. this is often very true in a box similar to alkaline phosphatase study, within which very actual hazards exist that the seeds of primary figuring out should be misplaced amidst an unexamined harvest of empirical observations. The historical past of the examine of alkaline phosphatase offers numerous circumstances while useful generalizations have emerged. sometimes, the conclusions drawn at the foundation of obtainable proof have been incorrect; extra often, they've got stood the try out of extra experimentation, and continuously, they've got supplied new insights into the character and correct ties of this enzyme.
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Additional info for Alkaline Phosphatase
Kuenzler and Perras30 found that after hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate by the nonspecific alkaline phosphatase of algae, the phosphate quickly entered the cell while the glucose stayed in solution. 4. 1. Species Alkaline phosphatase has been found in Dictyostelium discoideum,35-39 D. mucorOides, 35 D. purpureum,35 and Polysphondylium pallidum. 2. Developmental Correlations Slime molds exist as individual cells (designated amoebae) that generally feed on bacteria and undergo cell division. 35 ,36 When the local food supply is depleted, the cells aggregate and subsequently form a multicellular organized fruiting body (= sorocarp) supported by a stalk.
Kugler, O. , Histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase and nucleic acids in the oocytes of the bluegill (Lepomis machochirus Rajinesque), J. Histochem. , 1,296, 1953. 233. Dempsey, E. , and Wislocki, G. , Histochemical reactions associated with basophilia and acidophilia in the placenta and pituitary gland, Am. J. , 76,277, 1945. 234. Danielli, J. , Structural factors in cell permeability and secretion, Symp. Soc. Exp. , 6, 1, 1952. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 25 235. , and Qowes, R. ), p. 239, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1960.
The enzyme is situated in the space between the outer membrane (indicated by arrows) and the plasma membrane. There is evidence that monomers migrate into this space, that dimerization and zinc-binding occur at this site, and that enzymatic activity is not seen until these events have taken place (see Chapter 5). From Done et al. 46 With permission. 3. Purification and Structure A number of bacterial alkaline phosphatases have been purified, and high degrees of specific activity have been achieved.