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By I.M. Kolthoff

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A~ the If we let A denote the amino acid 2 RCOOH, shall see later NH A+ hybrid ion, the older view the cation, and A~ the anion, then according to CH+XA-: = K a, [A] (i) [A+JOH-] _ According to the modern concept, we have to deal with the following equilibria: +NH RCOOH 3 <= +NH RCOO- + H+ A+<=*+Aand 3 + H+, NH RCOO- + H O <^ +NH RCOO- + OR-, A- + H +* +A- + OH-. 2 2 2 3 ACID-BASE INDICATOKS 44 The equilibrium constants are and - -- [+A-JOH-] K ' and Kb are a and basic dissociation constants and Kb are merely the apparent dis- the true acidic of the ampholyte whereas sociation constants.

This is not true, however, since the hydrogen ions which are produced are used up in the formation of HA. Only when the initial hydrogen ion concentration remains undisturbed does [BOH] exactly equal [HA], for then the hydroxyl ions produced by hydrolysis are removed as a result of the for-" mation of BOH. e. tions already derived. We have shown above that: [HA] X [OH-] _ Kw ACID-BASE INDICATORS 18 and [BOH] X [H+] ~ _ By Kv , W . ; we obtain multiplying (29) and (34) ' Kw [BOH] X [HA] [B+] the salt is have [B+ ] = If of HA and X XHA X [A-] completely ionized and its concentration is c, we [A~] = c.

Chandler: J. Am. Chem. , 30, 694 (1908). Enklaar: Chem. Weekblad, 8, 824 (1911). Dhatta and Dhar: J. Chem. , 107, 824 (1915). Thorns and Sabalitschka: Th. , 6%, 567, 1378 (1919). , 60, 1227 (1917). THE REACTION OF is ACIDS, BASES, small compared with c for in this case Ki 9 practical purposes, and equation is (46) AND SALTS + 21 equals c for simplified to c [H+] all (47) This expression always permits an approximate calculation of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution of an acid salt. It yields correct values as long as c is more than 100 times greater than KI.

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