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By Fred Emery, Merrelyn Emery (auth.)

Exploration of the character of human communique and the media is a pre­ considered necessary to any evaluate of the most likely destiny position of communications . . we won't think that the character of these items is transparently seen to everybody and accordingly regularly understood. 3 advancements in fresh a long time should still competently warn opposed to such an assumption. First, we had the fiasco of social scientists attempting to follow Shannon's mathematical idea of knowledge as though it have been a idea of human conversation. 'In Shannon's use of data we won't converse of the way a lot details somebody has in simple terms how a lot a message has. ' (Ackoff and Emery, 1972, p. 145). they wouldn't have wandered into that blind alley in the event that they had stopped to contemplate the character of human conversation. moment used to be the belated yet wholehearted attractiveness of the Heider idea of stability and its subse­ quent wane. Its wane had not anything to do with its inherent benefits. It waned since it couldn't live on at the Procrustean mattress of the psychologists' conception of selection. It didn't ensue to the psychologists to question their as­ sumptions approximately how humans made the alternatives that result in practical com­ munication (Ackoff and Emery, 1972, p. 58). The final instance has been the sour and unended furore approximately McLuhan. This time the psychologists and sociologists haye been unusually quiet yet we will be able to make sure this doesn't suggest acquiescence in McLuhan's views.

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The printed word, picture and diagram have at least two advantages not easily realized on radio or television: 1. being static this message can be pored over, returned to or ignored, as the individual recipient feels fit; 2. as a result of (1), a higher level of conceptualization can be attained in print without 'losing' the recipient and it is also possible to present concurrently more of the many aspects of an event, and its determining context. It is the setting par excellence for transmission of knowledge about an absent event or object.

When radio is used in this latter way it creates for the listener a feeling of psychological closeness to the communicator and he is less conscious of the intervening medium. There is a marked contradiction between this, and the psychological distance and prominence of radio as a medium, which characterizes radio when used to communicate 'knowledge of'. In fact, it seems likely that the effectiveness of the Goon Show lay in the exploitation of this contradiction - the crazy juxtaposition of apparently real things to convey something of what they are as part of our inner, personal worlds.

85 between number of birds in the air and density of plankton in the water. This degree of self-regulation over such an area and involving so many birds could not be maintained by a simple direct correlation between birds and food. The typical mechanism involves a directive correlation between bird, and food and other bird. Thus the pelagic birds' behaviour is divided between maintaining an optimal distance from other birds, which he does by flying high up in the sky to see whether the others are on the horizon, and going down to near sea level for feeding.

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